Spectroscopic and thermal techniques for the characterization of the first millennium AD potteries from Kuriki-Turkey

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Bayazit M., Isik I., Issi A., GENÇ E.

CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL, cilt.40, ss.14769-14779, 2014 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 40 Konu: 9
  • Basım Tarihi: 2014
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2014.06.068
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.14769-14779


This study focuses on the archaeometrical characterization of the potteries belonging to the First Millennium AD from the Kuriki Mound using thermal, mineralogical, microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. The excavation area takes place at the intersection point of the Tigris River and the Batman Creek near the village of Oymatas in Batman city (Turkey). Since this region is located at Upper Mesopotamia, it is one of the important ancient sites in southeastern Anatolia and represents the cultural heritage of the civilizations that lived there. In the framework of the present study, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and ceramic petrography were employed to characterize the potsherds. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), micro-Raman spectroscopy and colorimetric analyses were also performed as complementary techniques. The results showed that the mineralogical composition of the pottery consists mainly of quartz, feldspar and plagioclase. Clay minerals (mainly illite) and organic materials were identified as the minor phases, while carbonated materials (mainly calcite) were seen as major and minor phases in different samples. Iron minerals were also detected by XRD and micro-Raman analyses. A relatively low vitrification degree along with the poor sinterization behavior defined in SEM/EDX analysis and the absence of any prominent endothermic or exothermic effects on DTA curves up to 1000-1100 degrees C suggested that the firing temperature of the potteries did not exceed this range. The main reason for such characteristics is thought to be a non-advanced firing technique. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.


This studyfocusesonthearchaeometricalcharacterizationofthepotteriesbelongingtotheFirstMillenniumADfromtheKurikiMoundusing thermal, mineralogical,microscopicandspectroscopictechniques.TheexcavationareatakesplaceattheintersectionpointoftheTigrisRiverand the BatmanCreeknearthevillageofOymataş in Batmancity(Turkey).SincethisregionislocatedatUpperMesopotamia,itisoneofthe important ancientsitesinsoutheasternAnatoliaandrepresentstheculturalheritageofthecivilizationsthatlivedthere.Intheframeworkofthe present study,thermogravimetric–differential thermalanalysis(TG–DTA) andceramicpetrographywereemployedtocharacterizethepotsherds. X-ray diffraction(XRD),scanningelectronmicroscopy(SEM)andenergydispersivespectroscopy(EDS),micro-Ramanspectroscopyand colorimetric analyseswerealsoperformedascomplementarytechniques.Theresultsshowedthatthemineralogicalcompositionofthepottery consists mainlyofquartz,feldsparandplagioclase.Clayminerals(mainlyillite)andorganicmaterialswereidentified astheminorphases,while carbonated materials(mainlycalcite)wereseenasmajorandminorphasesindifferentsamples.IronmineralswerealsodetectedbyXRDand micro-Raman analyses.Arelativelylowvitrification degreealongwiththepoorsinterizationbehaviordefined inSEM/EDXanalysisandthe absence ofanyprominentendothermicorexothermiceffectsonDTAcurvesupto1000–1100 1C suggestedthatthe firing temperatureofthe potteries didnotexceedthisrange.Themainreasonforsuchcharacteristicsisthoughttobeanon-advanced firing technique. & 2014 ElsevierLtdandTechnaGroupS.r.l.Allrightsreserved. Keywords: Ancient Turkishpottery;UpperMesopotamia;SouthernAnatolia;Kuriki(Turkey)