Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a major health problem that results in loss of motor and sensory functions. In treatment of PNI, various methods such as anastomosis, nerve grafts, nonneural tissue grafts, and nerve conduits are applied. In the present study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of Theranekron and Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) combined treatment on nerve healing in experimental PNI by using histomorphometric, electron microscopic, immunohistochemical and molecular biological methods. Sixty-two Wistar rats were divided into six groups; the normal control group, sham operation group, experimental control group having a crush type injury with no treatment, Theranekron treatment group, ALA treatment group and Theranekron+ALA combined treatment group. Sciatic nerve tissue samples were obtained on days 1, 7 and 14 following injury in all groups. GAP-43 expression was upregulated in all PNI received groups compared to the control group. Krox-20 expression was downregulated in all groups that received PNI compared to the control group. While intensely positive TNF-alpha and IL-6 expressions were observed up to the 1st to the 14th day for the experimental control group, these expressions were seen as "weakly positive" in the treatment groups from the 1st day to the 14th day. The number of myelinated fibers was higher in the control and sham operation groups. Additionally, the number of myelinated nerve fibers increased in the combined treatment group. In conclusion, these findings suggest that combined therapy of Theranekron and ALA promotes structural recovery and it should be considered as an effective treatment protocol following PNI.