Deciphering the quality and yield of heteromorphic seeds of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) under high temperatures in the Eastern Mediterranean region


BARUT M. , TANSI L. S. , BICEN G., KARAMAN S.

SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY, vol.149, pp.303-314, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI Expanded)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 149
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.sajb.2022.06.020
  • Title of Journal : SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY
  • Page Numbers: pp.303-314

Abstract

    Seed heteromorphism, which has different dormancy and germination behavior, is vital under hostile environments such as high temperatures and drought. Seed morphs of marigold were investigated in order to examine the seed heteromorphism, which correlates with environmental variability. A field experiment was conducted on 3 different planting dates (March 1st, March 15th, and April 1st, 2020) in the hot ecological conditions of the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. The results of this study revealed significant variations in the agronomic traits and fatty acid composition of heteromorphic marigold seeds. When the general averages were considered, the highest values for all of the studied traits were obtained from the March 1st planting date, except for the seed oil content. The seed yields and the number of seeds decreased significantly on late plantings that were more exposed to high-temperature stress. Six distinct morphs were found in the marigold seeds, comprising balloon-like, balloon-like with spines, insect-leg, winged, curved, and ring-like. The findings clearly indicated that the seed oil yield was highest in the balloon-like with spines and ring-like seed shapes. The major oil components of the heteromorphic marigold seeds were linoleic acid (37.55%–41.47%), oleic acid (21.04%–27.37%), and α-calendic acid (15.54%–22.09%). The most common seed, ring-like shaped, may play a key role in the intensive agriculture of the plant in terms of some features such as dormancy, dispersal, and cultivation techniques. As a consequence, even if multiple gradual harvests can be made in this region where global warming and climate change is felt more clearly, the marigold plants exhibited fewer capitula for the late planting dates and the ratio of seed heteromorphism changed.

      Seed heteromorphism, which has different dormancy and germination behavior, is vital under hostile environments such as high temperatures and drought. Seed morphs of marigold were investigated in order to examine the seed heteromorphism, which correlates with environmental variability. A field experiment was conducted on 3 different planting dates (March 1st, March 15th, and April 1st, 2020) in the hot ecological conditions of the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. The results of this study revealed significant variations in the agronomic traits and fatty acid composition of heteromorphic marigold seeds. When the general averages were considered, the highest values for all of the studied traits were obtained from the March 1st planting date, except for the seed oil content. The seed yields and the number of seeds decreased significantly on late plantings that were more exposed to high-temperature stress. Six distinct morphs were found in the marigold seeds, comprising balloon-like, balloon-like with spines, insect-leg, winged, curved, and ring-like. The findings clearly indicated that the seed oil yield was highest in the balloon-like with spines and ring-like seed shapes. The major oil components of the heteromorphic marigold seeds were linoleic acid (37.55%–41.47%), oleic acid (21.04%–27.37%), and α-calendic acid (15.54%–22.09%). The most common seed, ring-like shaped, may play a key role in the intensive agriculture of the plant in terms of some features such as dormancy, dispersal, and cultivation techniques. As a consequence, even if multiple gradual harvests can be made in this region where global warming and climate change is felt more clearly, the marigold plants exhibited fewer capitula for the late planting dates and the ratio of seed heteromorphism changed.