Aims: Urotensin II (U-II) is a cyclic peptide that was first isolated from the caudal neurosecretory system of goby fish. U-II receptors were detected in the vascular endothelium, brain and kidney cortex. Urotensin is by far the most powerful vasoconstrictor identified. U-II molecules were previously isolated from the brain of rats and were shown to have an impact on rat behavior. The aim of the present study was to measure the level of U-II molecule in schizophrenia patients and to investigate whether the U-II level is associated with the etiology of schizophrenia.