The effects of sex and season on the metal levels and proximate composition of red mullet (Mullus barbatus Linnaeus 1758) caught from the Middle Black Sea

DURMUŞ M., KÖŞKER A. R., ÖZOĞUL Y., Aydin M., UÇAR Y., Ayas D., ...More

HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT, vol.24, no.3, pp.731-742, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 24 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/10807039.2017.1398071
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.731-742
  • Keywords: red mullet, trace elements, macro elements, toxic metals, Black Sea, HEAVY-METALS, MEDITERRANEAN SEA, FISH, MUSCLES, MERCURY, COAST, CD, PB, CR
  • Çukurova University Affiliated: Yes


The effects of seasonal and sexual differences on the levels of macro, trace element, and toxic metal levels in Mullus barbatus were investigated using the ICP-MS. The quantity relationships of macro elements were found as K > P > Na > Ca > Mg for male, P > K > Na > Ca > Mg in female; the quantity relationships of trace elements were determined as Fe > Zn > Mn > Mo > Se > Cu > Ni > Co in male, Fe > Zn > Mn > Se > Cu > Ni > Mo > Co in female; and the quantity relationship of toxic elements were found as As > Pb > Cd in both male and female. Macro, trace, and toxic metal levels showed no significant differences (p > .05) in terms of sexuality, but demonstrated seasonal differences (p > .05). Overall, the highest level of macro elements was determined in the autumn, while the high level of trace elements was measured in the winter. The As, Cd, and Pb levels in the muscle tissue of red mullet fish were higher than acceptable limits. However, when the Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) and Estimated Weekly Intake (EWI) of both toxic metals are considered, they appear to be below acceptable limits. As a result, it was determined that the red mullet had been contaminated with toxic metals (Cd and Pb) but their levels according to EDI and EWI were below the limit.