Background and aim. Multiple risk factors lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) including viral infections, mutation and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Interleukin 288 (IL28B) gene rs12979860 polymorphism has been shown to be associated with HCC in the different populations, but its association with HCC has not been investigated in the Turkish population. We investigated whether the rs12979860 polymorphism of IL28B gene affects the risk of HCC. Material and method. We performed genotyping analysis using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay in a hospital-based case-control study of 187 confirmed HCC patients and 208 healthy subjects (cancer and viral infection negative) in the Turkish population. Results. The allele and genotype analysis showed no significant differences between the risk of HCC and IL28B gene rs12979860 polymorphism (OR = 1.10; 95% 0.59-2.08 P = 0.76 for genotype). However, in the HBV-related HCC subgroup, the TT genotype increased a 1.46-fold the risk of developing HCC, but not statistically significant (OR = 1.46; 95% 0.71-2.97 P = 1130). Furthermore, no significant differences were found between clinical findings, and sex in comparison with the IL28B genotypes in HCC group (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Our results suggest, for the first time, that no significant association were found between IL28B rs12979860 genotypes with the risk of developing HCC in Turkish patients. Further independent investigations are required to clarify the possible role of IL28B gene rs12979860 polymorphism on the risk of developing HCC in a larger series and also in patients of different ethnic origins.