Erectile dysfunction (ED) is an important complication of diabetes. The aim of our study was to determine whether Ferula elaeochytris (FE) root extract could affect ED in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Seventy-five adult male Wistar albino rats were equally divided into five groups; control (C), FE (40 mg/kg-d), STZ-induced diabetes (60 mg/kg) (DM), diabetes + F. elaeochytris (DM + FE), and ethanol (EtOH). After 8 weeks, in vitro and in vivo parameters (intracavernosal pressure [ICP]), testicle and body weight, serum glucose levels, and histopathology were assessed. In the STZ-induced diabetic group, acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation responses, and electrical field stimulation-induced neurogenic and nitrergic relaxation responses were decreased significantly, while FE administration to diabetic rats reversed the decreased nitrergic and neurogenic responses. In the diabetic group, ICP/MAP (0.1375 +/- 0.02 cm/H2O), spermatogenesis in testicles (53.73 +/- 0.81), and testicle weights (257.8 +/- 20.63) were decreased significantly; however, FE administration to diabetic rats restored the decreased values (0.350 +/- 0.019 cm/H2O, 75.07 +/- 0.35, and 416 +/- 24.11, respectively). In the DM group, blood glucose levels were increased (411.7 +/- 18.30) compared to the C group. However, FE administration to diabetic rats reduced glucose levels (230.6 +/- 25.60 mg/dL) compared to the DM group. In conclusion, FE recovered neurogenic and endothelial dysfunction and decreased glucose levels in diabetic rats.