Protectivity of COVID-19 Vaccines and Its Relationship with Humoral Immune Response and Vaccination Strategy: A One-Year Cohort Study

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Tanır F., Mete B., Demirhindi H., Kara E., Nazlıcan E., Dağlıoğlu G., ...More

VACCINES, vol.10, no.8, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 10 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/vaccines10081177
  • Journal Name: VACCINES
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, inactivated vaccine, mRNA vaccine, COVID-19, homologous vaccination, heterologous vaccination, protectivity
  • Çukurova University Affiliated: Yes


This prospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccine schemes, homologous versus heterologous vaccine strategies, and vaccine-induced anti-S-RBD-IgG antibody response in preventing COVID-19 among 942 healthcare workers 1 year after vaccination with the inactivated and/or mRNA vaccines. All participants received the first two primary doses of vaccines, 13.6% of them lacked dose 3, 50.5% dose 4, and 90.3% dose 5. Antibody levels increased with the increase in number of vaccine doses and also in heterologous vaccine regimens. In both inactive, mRNA vaccines and mixed vaccination, infection rates were significantly higher in two-dose-receivers, but lower in four- or five-dose receivers and increasing the total number of vaccine doses resulted in more protection against infection: the three-dose regimen yielded 3.67 times more protection, the four-dose 8 times, and five-dose 27.77 times more protection from COVID-19 infection, compared to any two-dose vaccination regimens. Antibody levels at the end of the first year of four- or five-dose-receivers were significantly higher than two- or three-dose receivers. To conclude, an increased number of total vaccine doses and anti-S-RBD antibody levels increased the protection from COVID-19 infection. Therefore, four or more doses are recommended in 1 year for effective protection, especially in risk groups.