The Effects of Global Financial Crisis, Covid-19 Pandemic, and Bank Ownership Structure on Non-Performing Loans in Turkey


Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, vol.41, no.2, pp.316-333, 2023 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier


Using System Generalized Method of Moments and data for 23 deposit banks over the period 2002-2020 this study aims to investigate the bank-specific and macroeconomic determinants of non-performing loans in Turkey. For a well-functioning banking system, it is important to understand the empirical determinants of non-performing loans. In this context, we particularly focus on the effects of global financial crisis, Covid-19 pandemic, and bank ownership structure on non-performing loans. To provide additional insights, we divide our sample into two as the pre-crisis and post-crisis periods. Our results indicate that both bank-specific and macroeconomic factors play a significant role in explaining the non-performing loans. Moreover, we find a negative impact of Covid-19 pandemic while there is no evidence for any significant impact of the last global financial crisis. More interesting is to note that bank ownership structure does not exert any significant effect on non-performing loans. Furthermore, the determinants of non-performing loans greatly differ in pre-crisis and post-crisis periods. We think that a sound banking and financial system would play a decisive role for allocating financial resources and thus supporting macroeconomic stability.