Hydrogen production of flat plate solar collectors integrated with photovoltaic thermal panels


International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol.52, pp.1408-1424, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 52
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2023.08.302
  • Journal Name: International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Artic & Antarctic Regions, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Environment Index, INSPEC
  • Page Numbers: pp.1408-1424
  • Keywords: Energetic and exergetic analyses, Flat-plate solar collectors, Hydrogen generation, ORC, Photovoltaic thermal panels
  • Çukurova University Affiliated: Yes


This study investigates an integrated system's energetic and exergetic evaluations and hydrogen generation efficiency. The proposed system comprises flat plate solar collectors (FPSCs) and photovoltaic thermal panels (PV-Ts) having a total area of 112.32 m2 and 108 m2, an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) containing n-butane as working fluid, a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer, a building for fungus production and a storage tank for hot water demand a house. The system analyses are conducted by Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software for a daily solar radiance in July. While the PV-T is refrigerated by the water in the city network with a heat exchanger, warm water is obtained from the PV-T as well as increasing the electricity generation of the PV-T. Thus, a thermal gain is provided by sending the preheated water from PV-Ts to FPSCs. Consequently, when both collectors worked together, fluid was obtained at a minimum and maximum temperature of 100 °C and 132.3 °C during the day. Thus, thanks to both collectors, a higher temperature fluid was sent to the ORC. In addition to the electricity generated by the PV-Ts in the system, electricity is also generated by the ORC from pre-heated hot water by two collectors. Thus, ORC produced a total of 173.96 MJ of electricity during the day, while PV-Ts produced a total of 341.04 MJ throughout the day. Thus, the entire system produced a total of 515 MJ of electricity throughout the day. The total generated electricity is operated in the PEM electrolysis for generating hydrogen via the water electrolysis process in the system. Only the electricity generated by ORC produces 784.18 g of hydrogen per day, while only the electricity generated by PV-Ts produces 1618.4 g of hydrogen. Thus, a total of 2402.58 g of hydrogen is generated by the system. The overall energetic performance of PEM was varied between 67.16% and 69% during the day. The maximum energetic and exergetic performance of the system is 37.02% and 7.32%, while the minimum energetic and exergetic performance is 31.70% and 6.88%, respectively.